Friday, 10 October 2008

Satellite1- History

Early conceptions

The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit is a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon. The story was serialized in The Atlantic Monthly, starting in 1869. The idea surfaces again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Millions (1879).

In 1903 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) published Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices), which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit around the Earth at 8 km/s, and that a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid propellants could be used to achieve this. He proposed the use of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, though other combinations can be used.

In 1928 Herman Potočnik (1892–1929) published his sole book, Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-Motor (The Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor), a plan for a breakthrough into space and a permanent human presence there. He conceived of a space station in detail and calculated its geostationary orbit. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for detailed peaceful and military observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments. The book described geostationary satellites (first put forward by Tsiolkovsky) and discussed communication between them and the ground using radio, but fell short of the idea of using satellites for mass broadcasting and as telecommunications relays.

In a 1945 Wireless World article the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008) described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.Clarke examined the logistics of satellite launch, possible orbits and other aspects of the creation of a network of world-circling satellites, pointing to the benefits of high-speed global communications. He also suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet.


1. Wikipedia>Satellite

2.The Brick Moon and Other Stories by Edward Everett Hale". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2008-03-06.

-- Download This eBook for free.

--Content: The brick moon -- Crusoe in New York -- Bread on the waters -- The lost palace -- 99 Linwood Street -- Ideals -- Thanksgiving at the polls -- The survivor's story

3. Contents - The Atlantic monthly. Volume 24, Issue 141". Retrieved on 2008-03-06.

--Contents from Cornell University Library

4.The_1945_Proposal_by_Arthur_C._Clarke_for_Geostationary_Satellite_Communications". Retrieved on 2008-03-06.

--Sir Arthur C. Clarke's most famous prediction on the future is his proposal of geostationary satellite communications published in the Wireless World magazine in 1945. Not considered seriously at the time it became a reality within 20 years with the launching on 1965 April 6th of Intelsat I Early Bird the first commercial geostationary communication satellite marking the true beginning of satellite tv.

A satellite in an equatorial circular orbit at a distance of approximately 42,164 km from the center of the Earth, i.e., approximately 35,787 km (22,237 miles) above mean sea level has a period equal to the Earth's rotation on its axis (Sidereal Day=23h56m) and would remain geostationary over the same point on the Earth's equator. In 2002 the Clarke Orbit had over 300 satellites.

The first reference to geostationary satellites is Clarke's letter to the editor titled Peacetime Uses for V2 published in the 1945 February issue of Wireless World (page 58).
Arthur Clarke in his Scientific Autobiography Ascent to Orbit published 1984 say that he had forgotten about this letter till he was reminded of it in 1968 by the engineering staff of the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation.

A 150 dpi scanned image of page 58 of an original 1945 Wireless World magazine is linked below. See also the copy edited OCR text in HTML.

--Content: This Book

Thursday, 9 October 2008

THEOS (satellite)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Organisation GISTDA
Mission type Earth Observation
Launch date 1 October 2008
06:37 GMT
Carrier rocket Dnepr
Mass 715 kg
Power 840 W

Orbital elements
Regime LEO
Inclination 98.77
Orbital period 101.4 minutes

THEOS is an Earth observation mission of Thailand, under development at EADS Astrium SAS, Toulouse, France. In July 2004, EADS Astrium SAS signed a contract for delivery of THEOS with GISTDA (Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency) of Bangkok, Thailand. GISTDA is Thailand's leading national organization (i.e., space agency) in the field of space activities and applications. The Thai Ministry of Science and Technology is funding the program.

It was launched from Dombarovskiy at 06:37 GMT on 1 October 2008, by a Dnepr rocket. The launch had been delayed several times after clearance for the flight was revoked by down-range countries.


PCI Geomatics to support THEOS satellite

Richmond Hill, Ontario – October 3, 2007: PCI Geomatics, a world-leading developer of software and solutions for geospatial imaging applications, is pleased to announce that it will support image products from the THEOS satellite (Thailand Earth Observation System), to be launched in November 2007.

PCI Geomatics will develop support for THEOS data import, precision orthorectification models, image mosaics, and advanced data fusion techniques such as panchromatic sharpening. Support for THEOS will also include stereo DEM generation from the sensor’s forward-and backward-looking images.

Owned and operated by the Thai Ministry of Science and Technology’s Space Agency (GISTDA), THEOS will provide customers in Thailand and abroad with image processing capabilities and geo-referenced image products. Potential applications include projects in cartography, land use, agriculture, forestry, coastal zone and flood risk monitoring, and disaster mitigation.

“PCI Geomatics congratulates GISTDA on the upcoming launch of the THEOS satellite,” said Adam Evans, Sales Manager for Asia at PCI Geomatics. “As a long-time supporter of geospatial imaging in Thailand, PCI looks forward to supporting the sensor for a wide variety of applications.”

About PCI Geomatics

PCI Geomatics is a world-leading developer of geospatial software, specializing in remote sensing, digital photogrammetry, spatial analysis, cartographic production, and, more recently, automated production systems. Today, with our trusted Geomatica® brand, PCI Geomatics provides all the image-centric solutions necessary to meet the expectations of a large and expanding industry. Since 1982, the company and its reputation have continued to grow as a result of innovative leadership, strong technology partnerships, active geomatics community involvement, and a dedication to earn the trust of customers who use PCI Geomatics.

For more information, visit

Monday, 6 October 2008

Sony Launches E-Book Reader with Touchscreen Display

By Jennifer LeClaire
October 3, 2008 1:14PM

Sony has released a new e-book reader for its Reader lineup: the PRS-700. Sony's PRS-700 e-book reader borrows some iPhone innovations, such as a touchscreen display. Sony says its PRS-700 e-book reader makes it possible to read e-books in bright sunlight. The PRS-700 also offers a built-in LED reading light and supports multiple formats.

In a move to compete with Amazon's Kindle e-book reader, Sony on Thursday launched a new Reader that leverages some of the Apple iPhone's strengths.

Specifically, the Sony PRS-700 Reader boasts an interactive touchscreen display that promises an intuitive digital reading experience. The latest addition to Sony's Reader lineup has the dimensions of a slimmed-down paperback book in a textured black casing with a soft black cover. It weighs about 10 ounces. The new Reader will be available next month for about $400.

"Readers now have another choice in digital books," said Steve Haber, president of Sony's Digital Reading business division. "This new model has the eye-popping design and intuitive functionality that people have come to expect from Sony."

New Bells and Whistles

Of course, "eye-popping" is in the eye of the beholder. What consumers will see in the PRS-700 is a device with a six-inch display with touchscreen capabilities that allows book enthusiasts to flip pages with the slide of a finger. Users can also search terms within a document or book, create notes using the virtual keyboard, and highlight text with a stylus pen that comes as part of the package.

The PRS-700 offers five preset text sizes, so readers can choose which is easiest on their eyes. Readers accustomed to large-print books can zoom in by tapping the screen. Sony said the device offers a high-resolution, high-contrast electronic paper-display technology that generates a reading experience akin to ink on paper.

Sony said its technology makes it possible to read e-books even in bright sunlight, and the PRS-700 offers a built-in LED reading light so users can keep on reading even when ambient light is not available. The new Reader can store about 350 digital books and offers the option of a removable memory stick or SD memory cards that expand the capacity to thousands of books and documents.

Another Step Forward

Sony said PRS-700 uses minimal power Relevant Products/Services and can provide up to 7,500 pages of continuous reading before recharging the battery. It supports multiple file formats for e-books, personal documents, and music. Consumers can add Adobe PDF documents with reflow capability, Microsoft Relevant Products/Services Word documents, BBeB files, and other text file formats.

"I do like the fact that the PRS-700 will accept a number of different formats. That means you can not only store books in there, but you can have PDFs and other downloadable documents in a business context," said Phil Leigh, a senior analyst at Inside Digital Media. "But this is still an early-adopter product because of the $400 price tag."

In addition, Sony's eBook Store Web site is getting a face-lift. Sony said a redesigned page layout with more prominent book-cover art and flash-based promotions will be introduced to enhance the visual appeal of the site. Sony is also streamlining the checkout process with updated search-and-discovery tools for finding and purchasing digital books.

"The trends are in the right direction. I think the e-book product sector will continue to improve, and ultimately we'll find that this kind of thing is going to be accepted into the mass market," Leigh said. "Not that it will replace paper books altogether, but it's going to be fairly common to see people using these things. But we're still five to 10 years away from that."

See the previous version : Sony PRS-500 Portable Reader System with Cheap Price.

Friday, 3 October 2008

5 Last-Minute Retirement Tips

Today Out of the wireless issue, beacause I read the News from Yahoo! website about the retirement tips that interested.Let's see..."5 Last-Minute Retirement Tips"

Even when one's investments are flourishing, facing retirement is stressful. But retiring during a bear market is not only significantly more nerve-wracking – it's also a lot more delicate. A bad move now could reverberate throughout your retirement years.
The good news is that, with the proper planning, folks can still retire without putting their nest egg at risk. Here are five last-minute steps pre-retirees should take before collecting their gold watches.

1. Adjust Your Asset Allocation
Whether retirement is six months away or three years down the road, prospective retirees need to take a good hard look at their portfolio in order to determine if it consists of the right investment mix. Keep in mind that a retirement stash may have to last 30 years. So it's important that the portfolio's asset allocation isn't too conservative.
In fact, the biggest mistake retirees make, especially during a bear market, is to sell all of their stocks in favor of more conservative bonds. According to a recent study by investment management firm T. Rowe Price those who do so are virtually guaranteed to run out of money during their lifetime since the portfolio won't be able to keep up with inflation.
According to T. Rowe, a typical retiree should shoot for a mix of 55% stocks and 45% bonds. Of course, everyone's risk tolerance is different and other factors, such as pension distributions and the equity stake they have in their home, also need to be taken into consideration.
2. Plot Your Distributions
Before you stop working, plot out how much money you'll take each year from both your retirement account and Social Security. However tempting it may be to tap into these funds as soon as retirement hits, there are huge financial advantages to holding off for as long as you can, says Daniel Thomas, a CPA from Newport Beach, Calif.
T. Rowe's study shows that a recent retiree who withdraws 4% from a 401(k) or IRA during the first five years of retirement (and increases his withdrawal amount by 3% each year to keep up with inflation) while his portfolio has an average return of less than 5%, has just a 43% chance of his money lasting for the next 25 years. In a nutshell, if one takes the recommended distributions during a bear market, the chances of his money lasting during retirement are greatly reduced. Should he put off tapping into his investments until the market recovers, or reduce his withdrawals significantly, he can expect to more than double his chances of affording retirement.
As for Social Security, Uncle Sam allows you to start receiving benefits at age 62. But if a retiree can afford to wait until full retirement age (for those born between 1939 and 1942, it falls during your 65th year; for those born between 1943 and 1954, age 66), the government will reward them with a "delayed retirement credit" that adds 8% to his or her benefits each year until age 70. Use the Social Security Administration's retirement planner here to help you figure out when to start receiving your benefits.
3. Scale Down Your Lifestyle
One of the best ways to make money last during retirement is to scale back on expenses and stick to a budget. In the past, one of the easiest ways to achieve significant cost savings was to trade in a large home for a smaller one. Given the housing slump, that may not seem possible these days since homeowners can't count on fetching the rich prices they had hoped for just a year or two ago. Not to worry, says Bill Losey, a certified financial planner and author of "Retire in a Weekend." Most retirees have been in their homes long enough that they can afford to sell their properties for a bit less and still realize healthy profits. And if they buy a place in a more affordable part of the country, they'll certainly come out ahead. "By downsizing, my clients save between $750 to $1,000 a month," Losey says.
If moving isn't an option, then retirees will need to cut back on spending elsewhere. Losey recommends trading in large expensive cars for more economical ones. Another cost-saver: Postpone a pricey vacation until the stock market recovers.
4. Sign Up for Medicare
Health care is one of the biggest expenses retirees face. The first thing a prospective retiree should do is check if his employer offers retiree health benefits or if supplemental insurance will be necessary. The next thing: Get a handle on the registration rules for Medicare. While the government's health insurance for seniors has many attractive features — including its relatively inexpensive premiums — it also has very strict rules and will penalize people by adding an additional 10% to premiums for every year they don't sign up on time.
Here's what you need to know: The Medicare open enrollment period starts three months before a senior turns 65 and end three months after his 65th birthday. Miss the six-month window and retirees will go without coverage until the following general enrollment period, which is Jan 1 through March 31 of the next year. The only exception is for folks who are working full time and are on their employer's health plan. Their open enrollment period starts as soon as they officially leave the work force. Also, be aware that Medicare doesn't cover dental expenses. That's why Sal Cocivera, a financial advisor with Lincoln Financial Advisors recommends that clients get a thorough checkup and take care of any costly procedures, including root canal and crowns, while their employer's insurance still covers them.
5. Buy Long-Term-Care Insurance
The biggest threat to one's nest egg isn't a bear market but an extended stay in a long-term-care facility. The average nursing home costs more than $74,000 a year, according to life insurance provider MetLife. To make sure an accident or just deteriorating health doesn't wipe out your savings, consider buying long-term-care insurance.
Be warned, however, that purchasing a long-term-care policy in one's 60s will be expensive. Those high premiums will be worth it, though. Should you fall ill, for example, your spouse will still have assets to live on, says Lincoln Financial Advisors' Cocivera. While prices vary quite a bit, this is one area where one shouldn't skimp. Some of the least expensive policies may leave out important benefits, including inflation protection and the freedom to hire any home health-care aide you want.